Believed People to the Republic.. Yes I agree with you, it is pretentious title. I will introduce you a political party which both worked of leaded to found for the Modern Turkey Republic here. Firtsly I will explain you history of party.
a. History of Republican People’s Party (RPP)
Republican People’s Party (RPP) was founded 9 th of September 1923 by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk was founder of Modern Turkey Republic. RPP is first political party of Turkey because it founded to Republic of Turkey. Actually RPP was existing during Ottoman Empire. During the First World War, when Mustafa Kemal go to Samsun to begin the Independence War, he coordinated a few congrees. In Sivas Congrees, people’s of Anatolian who occupy against enemy was united as Association for the defence of the Rights of Anatolia and Rumelia. (1)
RPP’s ideologies can be told like that; Kemalist, social democrat and social liberalist. There was not any political party except RPP so it has been goverment from 1923 to 1950. In these years, passing to system of multiparties was tried by RPP but it was not succeed. On the real meaning, passing to system of multiparties was succeed in 1946 when Democrat Party was founded by Celal Bayar who was friend of Mustafa Kemal. RPP always supported to passing to system of multiparties because Mustafa Kemal wanted to bring to Turkey that democracy. (2)
There were 4 leaders of RPP until today. Party’s founder and first leader was Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. He has been leading to RPP from founded of Modern Turkey Repuplic (1923) to his died (1938). (3)
After Atatürk’s died, its second leader was İsmet İnönü who was one of best friend of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. When İsmet İnönü begin the leader of RPP, he announced that he is “National Chief”. Also Atatürk was announced as “Eternal Chief”. He has been leading to RPP from 1938 to 1972. (4)
The third leader of RPP was Bülent Ecevit. After passing to system of multiparties, RPP was member of coalition second time after İsmet İnönü’s period and was minority goverment first time in his period. He also saved the Turkish people who live in Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus from Greek thugs, 1974. He has been leading to RPP from 1972 to 1980. (5)
After Bülent Ecevit’s period, The Turkish Army couped and took the goverment. RPP was closed in this period from 1981 to 1992. In 1992, RPP was opened again and Deniz Baykal begun fourth leader of RPP. Deniz Baykal has been leading to RPP from 1992 to 2010 except 18 February 1995 – 9 September 1995 and 23 May 1999 – 30 September 2000. (6)
I explained to you history of RPP and its leaders until today. Now I will explain party’s ideologies and principles.
b. Ideologies and Principles of RPP
I have talked about RPP’s ideologies upside. I said Kemalist, Social Democrat and Social Liberalist. I want to expand about these here. Firstly I want to about Kemalism.
Kemalism means; being follower of Mustafa Kemal’s thoughts and ideas, connected with nationalist of Atatürk, holding on mind and science not superstition. Kemalism was appeared by RPP’s principles. (7) These principles are known as six arrows; republican, nationalism, populism, statism, revolutionism and secularism. (8) Now I want to explain you each of them.
Republican show us that new Turkey’s Repuplic regime. Mustafa Kemal and RPP always want to continue this and did anything when it was goverment. Firstly Mustafa Kemal Atatürk found RPP and took first step to passing to republic regime. He announced the republic regime on 29 th of October 1923. He tried to add new political parties but he was not succeed. Republican people always want to develop themselves and do something for their country. (9)
Nationalism means that always protect and work for their country. Nationalism of Atatürk is little bit different. Yes, Atatürk was a Turkish Nationalist but he did not defence Turkish Nationalism blindly. He said that who feel themselves as Turkish, they are Turkish people. Mustafa Kemal did anything oriented nationalism. He found Turkish History Foundatition and Turkish Language Foundatition. He announced new Turkish alphabet. He organised İzmir Economic Congree and announced Coasting Law. (10)
Populism, If country say that we are populist country, they have to protect their people and people’s rights. Populism intend to make people happier and raise their comfort. Everybody is equal oriented populism. Mustafa Kemal accepted clothes law. He rejected unnecessary taxes. He announced civil law. He gave women right of choose and be voted. There are something like these oriented populism. (11)
Statism means that the state do necessary works for economic, social and cultural development. This is actually an economic politic. Oriented the statism, Republic of Turkey prepared first and second development plans for 5 years. It founded some factories like Etibank, Denizbank, Sümerbank. It made special work areas nationalist by statement. (12)
Revolutionism means actually is that innovation. It intend to make older foundatition modern. Atatürk wanted to continue to innovations with revolutionism and when something change, it would be innovate with newest one. Accepted hat law, Latin alphabet and numbers, changed calendar, hour, weight and height measures, taken the holiday of week from friday to sunday. Also mostly revolutions are about revolutionism principle. (13)
Secularism means keeping away each other works of religion and state. Atatürk’s secularism principle means ensure freedoom of religion, praying and conscience for all of people. System of state and rules of law are not based on by religion. They are based on by mind and science. Secularism is a rule of constitution which can not be changed. So freedoom of religion of people was secured. Abolished sultanate, found to republic, announced law of education, closed older education foundatition, excluded law of that state’s official religion is Islam and etc. were did by Turkish Republic. (14)
I can summarize to Kemalism like that. Now I want to explain you Social Democratism and Social Liberalism.
Social Democratism is a ideology which wants to found democratic society. It is a politic which want to ensure all of things for people. Actually it intends to resistable capitalism and gradual socialism. But it does not neglect self control of public and private approaches when it intends to do that. Social Democratism was appeared between people who support to socialism idea. It rejects inequality, poorness and exploitness and protects capitalism as I have said before. (15)
Social Liberalism is a political ideology which wants to harden between individual freedoom and social justice. It defences economy of market, expanding civil and political rights like clasical liberalism but social liberalism defences to goverment must to help people these conditions; poorness, health and education. In Social Liberalism, society’s goodness is seen harmonic with person’s freedoom. (16)
I have tried to explain you ideologies and principles of RPP. I want to say something about RPP’s today and finish to project.
c. RPP’s Today
I have written upside like that there are 5 leader of RPP until today. I introduced to you 4 leaders. Today fifth leader of RPP is Kemal Kılıçdaroğlu. He begun to leader after Deniz Baykal’s quit in 2010. (17)
Kemal Kılıçdaroğlu leaded to RPP on 3 general elections (one of them is early election), 1 referendum, 1 election of president and 1 municipal election. (18) RPP has won 134 deputies with 25.31 percent vote rating on the last election (1 st of November 2015 General Election). (19)
Kemal Kılıçdaroğlu had a rival who’s name is Muharrem İnce to be leader of RPP at 5 th of September 2014. Kemal Kılıçdaroğlu beated to Muharrem İnce and was selected leader of RPP again. Muharrem İnce was Yalova’s deputy of RPP and still Yalova’s deputy. There is no conflict between Muharrem İnce and Kemal Kılıçdaroğlu after leading election. (20)
RPP is still a party which kemalist, social democrat and social liberalist today but somebodies say something opposite about that. RPP’s vote rating is not changed so much because people believe that there are 70 percent rightist, 30 percent leftist people live in Turkey. RPP is still a biggest representative of Turkish left and still main opposition party of Turkey.
I can say something like these about RPP’s today.
Berk ÇEVİK, Karadeniz Teknik Üniversitesi Uluslararası İlişkiler Bölümü öğrencisi
Footnotes which was used here when this project was being made;
- http://www.ataturkdevrimleri.com/yazi-244-laiklik-ilkesi-dogrultusunda-yapilaninkilaplar.html Beleived People to the Republic
… This project was made by Berk Çevik for Introduction to Political Studies lesson on Stefen Cel Mare University of Suceava … (2015-2016 Education Year)