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Radical Dimenson of Making Policy: “TERRORISM”

This writing has been designed to analyze terrorism as a up to date and growing –world shaking problematic concept. It is inevitable that terror’s constructive elements should be determined, to understand and decipher its process, lived through the human history, by facing to threat of terrorism.

Evolution of Terrorism

Origin of terror stems from the Latin sentence “terrere” which means the fear, the misdoubt and the violence. Ideology which has taken “terror” as a key factor is “Terrorism”. Terrorism which has especially been in existence since The French Revolution (1789) is not new and modern conception. Despite of modernization of terrorism, it has flourishingly aroused via French Revolution, occuring basis construction of confliction, and Industrial Revolutioni coming together communication, transportation, technology. With formed various shapes, terrorism ironically called for positive meanings then on the contrary today’s perception. After the revolution, protecting the worth of revolution, establishing new order and democracy were wanted in axis of terrorism even in anarchy period 1793-94 (regime de terreur). In this period, it could be seen that the terrorism was adopted in proportion to goodness and gaining democracy for new democratic order.[1]

In Industrial Revolution, new ideologies have arisen out of social-economic changes such as the Marxism and the Communism. So, terrorism has been anti-state and revolutionary until the begining of the First World War. When looking the back, it is absolutely world shaking case that crown prince Franz Ferdinand, who is the Austria-Hungarian archduke, was killed in Sarajevo in 28 June 1914. It was proved that there was correlation between the Serbia Administration and the Young Bosnian known as “Black Hand”. This conspiracy can be analized as initial example of state-sponsored terrorism.[2]

During the 1930s, the state terrorism has concretely had a role in domestic and foreign policy on account of totalitorian and dictator regimes, whose leaders have carried out the policies by acting dominant and non hesitation for using violence, examples of which has been indicated as Vladimir Lenin and Joseph Stalin in Russia, Mao Tse Tung in China, Adolph Hitler in Germany, Benito Musolini in Italy.

Collapsing Soviet Union, the World has dramatically formed with up to date perceptions and transformed the ontology of terrorism. The emergence of US as a sole power and its ongoing policy in the Middle East have allowed islamic militancy defined evil by Bush Administration into the World.

After the Cold War had overed, it has been perceived the new security threat around the World in conjunction with “New World Order”. At the beginning of the 20. century, 11 Sept. 2001 attacks have strengthen this approach. Noone could encourage to assault with the intention to show of force to World Trade Center in New York until this date. But terrorism has apparently showed that the threat which comes from obscurity could come and effect on social prosperity and states security. It has been seen that unexpected attacks can appear in days to come as long as urgent precautions aren’t taken. Such countries like France have waken up to themselves on the grounds of the great jeopardy. They have begun to take measures in summit meetings from security developing to human rights for effects of terror.

As we emphasized above, terrorism has existed every era due to that human is inside of disorder and inadequacy. But, in 21. century, terror has thrived by exceeding its traditional descriptions and dimensons.

Devastating Effect of Terrorism

11 September 2001 terrorism attacks on U.S. have come in possession of turning point as regards conventional form of terrorism. The attacks toward Washington and New York have showed that the strongest and ruling state security shield could be broken. Shortly after that, The United Nation’s Security Council, which is responsible for providing and protecting the security and prosperity between member states, has urgently laid emphasis on “international terrorsim” and taken precautions going forward basis and by advocating global collaboration with systematical and long term approach.[3]

Main aim of terrorism is to create chaos atmosphere and to ballyrag the community. It aims to radicalize social communities by polarizing with some materials (identity, ethnic, religion etc.) These factors have affected to people in sides of social exclusion, poverty, the desire of democracy, the awareness. In agend international system, terrorism can be seen the most critical problem as existing through the human history. Feeling of insecurity come together in line the terrorism has needed organized policies in meanings of national and global.

Experimenting 11 Sept. attacks, Muslim World has been seen equal to violence associated with religions. Al Quaide, which is terror organization nourishing in Muslim World, undertook blames about breaking out attacks. In broad perspectives, it is not possible to say that only reason of attacks is to spread islam in sense of Jihad. On the ground of boiling area, Middle East is too complicated to analyze with such a superficial and unfounded perspective. When the people in Middle East corparate territorial differences such as themselves and West, they can be aware that the West has obtained its wealth and strenght by using some area’s weakness and getting unearned income owing to imperialism. Furthermore, the people have felt humiliated and wronged in the face of the ascendancy. People furios because of inadequate of their stuff, by comparison with West, have especially attended organization of terrorism since especially early of 21.century. This approach has allowed to introduce grievance into Middle East, occuring the common ground and aligning against imperialism. As making of this, creating awareness and gaining prestige have been targeted. In the meanwhile, liberation movements are assisted and aligned against cruelty such as Palesitan struggle against Israeli occupation. Underlying reasons of 11 Sept. attacks have stemmed from theft of resourches, human rights abuses as to especially Israel. In this context,  it was gained new momentum and awareness with these attacks. They have worried about that the West has tried to make uneffective Muslim World as changing their values and life styles using modern imperial system.

Terror is sometimes used as a device of making policy by the states. Although terrorism is the way of barbarians, the states can protect and support the terrorism by serving the purpose of their strategy. Instability and insecurity would be wanted element against rival or counter states by home states. As we can see examples of this today, during the Cold War, many radical movements was backep up in aspect of moral and material argument assistance from one of super powers (USA, SSCB).

Terrorism due to exceeding national lines has handled within the International Law. There is no accepted universal definition, and it might prevent the both solution ways and knowledge as to the problem. Regarding that the differences between terrorism and ordinary crimes, terrorism has not tended toward the special aim an wanted to send general messages to target groups.

In general, when under-developed communities interrogates the process after all they have been, they accused Western modes of living and policies ongoing each area.

In today’s World, East and West are not so much different position in respect to closeness to terror organizations because of the globalization. Globalization with the effect of minimizing huge connection obstacles has enhanced uncertainty and unclearness for finding solutions against terrorism. Not only globalization has caused one within the other factors, but has also caused nebulous frame to determine towards problem analysis. As a vehicle of globalization, cyberspace is defined as the union of all extensive information and communication technology networks. Attacks that are conducted via the internet can be defined “cyberterrorism” as the goals individual and institutional computers and control servers.[4]

Terrorism should be taken to analyze with reasons of incentives and broad approach together surveillances. By means of mass communication and up to date phones, attacks can be launched easliy from anywhere in the World without any preparations. Though mass communication in particular internet is both cheap and available, damage of it may be spectecular cost. Attackers can choose their victims a wide variety of interesting targets, for this, analyzing of underlying motivation of attacks may turn into puzzle. This makes nearly impossible for government concentrating and controlling in one point.

There are a lots of target of terrorism gaining from chaos and massacres. Some of which are the generation of fear, economic confusion, discrimination, insecurity in policy, anarchy.

There are principal targets of terror such as to debilitate state administration, to endanger its existence, to destroy the basic rights and liberties and disturb the peace. Trying these ways, it has used the violence as the most important and effective material. As it can be seen, the violence is the way of destroying of state control. Therefore, terror is major matter for ongoing stability of state when the factors that have triggered the terrorism which can effect and spread the all the World. The reasons of arising the terror, which can be counted a lots of causes about that, might be changed according to kind of terror. For example, the ethnic terror is effected by ethnic hatred which has experienced memories recently of long time ago. It can stem from discrimination of identity, unawareness, not equality for social factors created a tremendous impression. On the other hand, the religious terror , which can be seen its great impacts in the World and become chronic in the Middle East, can consolidate its existence without big efforts and persuasiveness. Since the religion is such a magical concept that the people bien pensant in radical sense at the cost of their life have supported everything on behalf of the holiness. After explaining a copule of examples, it is necessary that the universal consent about arising terror is analized. These are the economic imbalance, the lack of education, the government weakness, environmental factors.

Today’s Huge Terror Organization: ISIL (Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant)

ISIL (Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant) is established by Ebu Bekir El Bağdadi also leader of this organization. Actually, he has laid the foundations of this construction during the Iraq War. He has gone to Syria for integration El Nusra front and his organization the ISIL in 2013 in the course of Syria Crisis. The ISIL has gone on by becoming strong in this area, however El Kaide has commended for discharge of ISIL in Syria. So, El Kaide has declared that relation between its and ISIL overed.

We have known the ISIL as a concept for 1.5 years, although its creation factors  have existed in the Middle East for 15 years by the reason of dictator regimes and emperial administration effected and depending on the Western Powers. Furthermore, ISIL, giant and terrific organization, has restorative and nourisher factors being historical conditions, jihad concept and trampled honour etc..Moreover, Turkey has drastically big role for transferring foreign people to ISIL by the way of geographical position.

Not only foreign fighters are sole factor about becoming stronger this organization, but territorial and exterterritorial factors also play huge role. Western Powers have asserted a claim that the Turkey is weak in the field of security in transition the foreign fighters. Actually, Turkey may be unjustly accused of inability in its security policies. Having millions of tourists in a year, it is difficult (may be impossible) that choosing dangerous people are.[5]

It is apparently seemed that Surian Crisis, which determined radical decisions with national and international dimenson, has considerably created awareness in terror, terrorism and terrorist elements. We can see that radical organization, giving trouble with rooted and wealth construction, can show its effect both in its occuring area and in other under-developed, developing or even developed area by throwing tyranny, fear, threat etc..

Burcu SANDIKÇI (Yüksek Lisans), Kocaeli Üniversitesi, Uluslararası İlişkiler Bölümü.

[1] Fatma Taşdemir, Uluslararası Terörizme Karşı Devletlerin Kuvvete Başvurma Yetkisi, USAK Yayınları, 1. Baskı, Ankara, 2006, s.32-38

[2] Taşdemir s.39

[3] Ezeli Azarkan, 11 eylül terör saldırıları sonrası dönemde birleşmiş milletlerin uluslararası terörizm konusundaki tutumu, http://www.dicle.edu.tr/Contents/29a95274-cd5d-41f2-a90d-4afd1ce6b126.pdf s.47

[4] Responses to Cyber Terrorism, Centre of Excellence Defence Against Terrorism, Turkey, 2008, IOS Press, s.24-35

[5] Oytun Orhan, Sınır Geçişleri ve Türkiye, Ortadoğu Dergisi, Cilt 6, Sayı 64, Eylül-Ekim, s.44

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